Eternal Christendom logo

Study Bank: The Kings and Queen Mothers of the Davidic Kingdom in the Old Testament

The “Becoming Catholic” series presents the biblical, philosophical, and historical evidence for why Eternal Christendom Founder, Joshua Charles, became and remains Catholic. The series table of contents is here.

This Study Bank on the Kings and Queen Mothers of the Davidic Kingdom in the Old Testament is part of the Becoming Catholic series. When preparing articles, I typically engage in a substantial amount of research, and often organize it in separate documents I then use as a reference when writing the article. Sometimes these are Scripture word studies, other times they are compilations of verses or patristic and other quotes on particular subjects, etc. I have found that organizing the data often leads to a better understanding of the topic at hand.

A Study Bank, therefore, is in no way an article, or presenting an argument. It is simply a compilation of data on a particular topic.

In this Study Bank, I list all the Kings of Judah and Israel, along with the Queen Mothers listed for Judah, the Davidic Kingdom. I also include other instances where the Queen Mother is mentioned, or is the main actor in a story, such as when Bathsheba, as the Queen Mother under Solomon, intercedes on behalf of an Israelite.

The point of compiling this data is to show the importance of the office of Queen Mother (gebirah, or “Great Lady” in Hebrew); its consistent appearance in the legitimate Davidic Kingdom (Judah); its virtual absence among the illegitimate kingdom (Israel); and thereby present typological data from the Old Testament in which the Catholic Church sees the prefiguring of the office of Queen of Heaven and Earth held by the Blessed Virgin Mary in the eternal Davidic Kingdom of Christ, David’s offspring.

God promised to David that “your house and your kingdom shall be made sure for ever before me; your throne shall be established forever’” (2 Sam. 7:16).

As this scriptural data shows, the office of Queen Mother was a consistent feature of the “house of David,” and therefore—as we will show in future articles—it is a feature of the eternal House of David over which Christ now reigns as King.

The first section lists all the citations for all the subsequent sections. The second section lists all the Kings and Queens of Judah, the legitimate Davidic kingdom. The third section lists all the Kings of Israel, the breakaway kingdom, virtually none of which list a Queen Mother. The fourth section lists other verses where the office of Queen Mother is referenced. The final section shows stories that compare and contrast Bathsheba’s role and authority as merely the wife of King David, and the mother (and thus Queen) of King Solomon.

LIST OF CITATIONS

List of the Kings and Queen of Judah

List of the Kings of Israel

LIST OF THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF JUDAH

King Rehoboam, Queen Naamah

(1 Kings 14:21)

21 Now Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam was forty-one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the Lord had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. His mother’s name was Naamah the Ammonitess.

(1 Kings 14:31)

31 And Rehoboam slept with his fathers and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. His mother’s name was Naamah the Ammonitess. And Abijam his son reigned in his stead.

(2 Chron. 12:13)

13 So King Rehoboam established himself in Jerusalem and reigned. Rehoboam was forty-one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the Lord had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel to put his name there. His mother’s name was Naamah the Ammonitess.

King Abijam/Abijah, Queen Maacah/Micaiah

(1 Kings 15:1-2)

Now in the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam the son of Nebat, Abijam began to reign over Judah. 2 He reigned for three years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom.

(2 Chron. 13:1-2)

In the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam Abijah began to reign over Judah. 2 He reigned for three years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Micaiah the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah.

King Asa, Queen Maacah

(1 Kings 15:9-10)

9 In the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Asa began to reign over Judah, 10 and he reigned forty-one years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom.

(1 Kings 15:13)

13 He also removed Maacah his mother from being queen mother because she had an abominable image made for Asherah; and Asa cut down her image and burned it at the brook Kidron.

(2 Chron. 14:1)

So Abijah slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city of David; and Asa his son reigned in his stead. In his days the land had rest for ten years.

(2 Chron. 15:16)

16 Even Maacah, his mother, King Asa removed from being queen mother because she had made an abominable image for Asherah. Asa cut down her image, crushed it, and burned it at the brook Kidron.

King Jehoshaphat, Queen Azubah

(1 Kings 22:41-42)

41 Jehoshaphat the son of Asa began to reign over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel. 42 Jehoshaphat was thirty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi.

(2 Chron. 20:31)

31 Thus Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah. He was thirty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi.

King Ahaziah, Queen Athaliah

(2 Kings 8:25-26)

25 In the twelfth year of Joram the son of Ahab, king of Israel, Ahaziah the son of Jehoram, king of Judah, began to reign. 26 Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Athaliah; she was a granddaughter of Omri king of Israel.

(2 Kings 11:1-3)

Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the royal family. But Jehosheba, the daughter of King Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king’s sons who were about to be slain, and she put him and his nurse in a bedchamber. Thus she hid him from Athaliah, so that he was not slain; and he remained with her six years, hid in the house of the Lord, while Athaliah reigned over the land.

(2 Chron. 22:1-2)

So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. 2 Ahaziah was forty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Athaliah, the granddaughter of Omri.

King Jehoash/Joash, Queen Zibiah

(2 Kings 12:1)

In the seventh year of Jehu Jehoash began to reign, and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Zibiah of Beer-sheba.

(2 Chron. 24:1)

Joash was seven years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem; his mother’s name was Zibiah of Beer-sheba.

King Amaziah, Queen Jeho-addin/Jeho-addan

(2 Kings 14:1-2)

In the second year of Joash the son of Joahaz, king of Israel, Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, began to reign. 2 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jeho-addin of Jerusalem.

(2 Chron. 25:1)

Amaziah was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jeho-addan of Jerusalem.

King Azariah/Uzziah, Queen Jecoliah

(2 Kings 15:1-2)

In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel Azariah the son of Amaziah, king of Judah, began to reign. 2 He was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-two years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jecoliah of Jerusalem.

(2 Chron. 26:3)

3 Uzziah was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-two years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jecoliah of Jerusalem.

King Jotham, Queen Jerusha/Jerushah

(2 Kings 15:32-33)

32 In the second year of Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, Jotham the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, began to reign. 33 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jerusha the daughter of Zadok.

(2 Chron. 27:1)

Jotham was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jerushah the daughter of Zadok.

King Hezekiah, Queen Abi/Abijah

(2 Kings 18:1-2)

In the third year of Hoshea son of Elah, king of Israel, Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, king of Judah, began to reign. 2 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Abi the daughter of Zechariah.

(2 Chron. 29:1)

Hezekiah began to reign when he was twenty-five years old, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Abijah the daughter of Zechariah.

King Manasseh, Queen Hephzibah

(2 Kings 21:1)

Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hephzibah.

(2 Chron. 33:1-2)

Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-five years in JerusalemHe did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, according to the abominable practices of the nations whom the Lord drove out before the people of Israel. [Mother’s name not listed]

King Amon, Queen Meshullemeth

(2 Kings 21:19)

19 Amon was twenty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah.

(2 Chron. 33:21-22)

21 Amon was twenty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem22 He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as Manasseh his father had done. Amon sacrificed to all the images that Manasseh his father had made, and served them. [Mother’s name not listed]

King Josiah, Queen Jedidah

(2 Kings 22:1)

Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned thirty-one years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jedidah the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath.

(2 Chron. 34:1-2)

Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned thirty-one years in JerusalemHe did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, and walked in the ways of David his father; and he did not turn aside to the right or to the left. [Mother’s name not listed]

King Jehoahaz, Queen Hamutal

(2 Kings 23:31)

31 Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

(2 Chron. 36:1-2)

The people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah and made him king in his father’s stead in Jerusalem. Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. [Mother’s name not listed]

King Jehoiakim, Queen Zebidah

(2 Kings 23:36)

36 Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Zebidah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah.

(2 Chron. 36:5)

Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord his God. [Mother’s name not listed]

King Jehoiachin, Queen Nehushta

(2 Kings 24:8)

8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem.

(2 Chron. 36:9)

Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem. He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord. [Mother’s name not listed]

King Zedekiah, Queen Hamutal

(2 Kings 24:18)

18 Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

(2 Chron. 36:11-12)

11 Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem12 He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord his God. He did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet, who spoke from the mouth of the Lord. [Mother’s name not listed]

(Jer. 52:1)

Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king; and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

LIST OF THE KINGS OF ISRAEL

Jeroboam, King of Israel

(1 Kings 11:26)

26 Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephraimite of Zeredah, a servant of Solomon, whose mother’s name was Zeruah, a widow, also lifted up his hand against the king.

(1 Kings 14:20)

20 And the time that Jeroboam reigned was twenty-two years; and he slept with his fathers, and Nadab his son reigned in his stead.

Nadab, King of Israel

(1 Kings 15:25-26)

25 Nadab the son of Jeroboam began to reign over Israel in the second year of Asa king of Judah; and he reigned over Israel two years. 26 He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, and walked in the way of his father, and in his sin which he made Israel to sin.

Ba-asha, King of Israel

(1 Kings 15:28-29)

28 So Ba-asha killed him [Nadab] in the third year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned in his stead29 And as soon as he was king, he killed all the house of Jeroboam…

Elah, King of Israel

(1 Kings 16:6, 8)

And Ba-asha slept with his fathers, and was buried at Tirzah; and Elah his son reigned in his stead

In the twenty-sixth year of Asa king of Judah, Elah the son of Ba-asha began to reign over Israel in Tirzah, and he reigned two years.

Zimri, King of Israel

(1 Kings 16:16)

15 In the twenty-seventh year of Asa king of Judah, Zimri reigned seven days in Tirzah.

Tibni (rival to Omri)

(1 Kings 16:16)

21 Then the people of Israel were divided into two parts; half of the people followed Tibni the son of Ginath, to make him king, and half followed Omri.

Omri (rival to Tibni), King of Israel

(1 Kings 16:22-23)

22 But the people who followed Omri overcame the people who followed Tibni the son of Ginath; so Tibni died, and Omri became king23 In the thirty-first year of Asa king of Judah, Omri began to reign over Israel and he reigned for twelve years; six years he reigned in Tirzah.

Ahab, King of Israel

(1 Kings 16:29)

29 In the thirty-eighth year of Asa king of Judah, Ahab the son of Omri began to reign over Israel, and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty-two years.

Ahaziah, King of Israel

(1 Kings 22:40, 51)

40 So Ahab slept with his fathers; and Ahaziah his son reigned in his stead

51 Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria in the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and he reigned two years over Israel.

Jehoram/Joram, King of Israel

(2 Kings 1:17)

17 So he died according to the word of the Lord which Elijah had spoken. Jehoram, his brother, became king in his stead in the second year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, because Ahaziah had no son.

(2 Kings 3:1)

In the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, Jehoram the son of Ahab became king over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned twelve years. 

Jehu, King of Israel

(2 Kings 9:13)

13 Then in haste every man of them took his garment, and put it under him on the bare steps, and they blew the trumpet, and proclaimed, “Jehu is king.

(2 Kings 10:13)

13 Jehu met the kinsmen of Ahaziah king of Judah, and he said, “Who are you?” And they answered, “We are the kinsmen of Ahaziah, and we came down to visit the royal princes and the sons of the queen mother.”

(2 Kings 10:36)

36 The time that Jehu reigned over Israel in Samaria was twenty-eight years.

Jehoahaz, King of Israel

(2 Kings 13:1)

In the twenty-third year of Joash the son of Ahaziah, king of Judah, Jehoahaz the son of Jehu began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned seventeen years.

Jehoash, King of Israel

(2 Kings 13:10)

10 In the thirty-seventh year of Joash king of Judah Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned sixteen years. 

Jeroboam II, King of Israel

(2 Kings 14:23)

23 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, began to reign in Samaria, and he reigned forty-one years.

Zachariah, King of Israel

(2 Kings 14:29)

29 And Jeroboam slept with his fathers, the kings of Israel, and Zechariah his son reigned in his stead.

(2 Kings 15:8)

In the thirty-eighth year of Azariah king of Judah Zechariah the son of Jeroboam reigned over Israel in Samaria six months.

Shallum, King of Israel

(2 Kings 15:13)

13 Shallum the son of Jabesh began to reign in the thirty-ninth year of Uzziah king of Judah, and he reigned one month in Samaria.

Menahem, King of Israel

(2 Kings 15:17)

17 In the thirty-ninth year of Azariah king of Judah Menahem the son of Gadi began to reign over Israel, and he reigned ten years in Samaria.

Pekahiah, King of Israel

(2 Kings 15:23)

23 In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned two years.

Pekah, King of Israel

(2 Kings 15:27)

27 In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned twenty years.

Hoshea, King of Israel

(2 Kings 15:30)

30 Then Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and struck him down, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.

(2 Kings 17:1)

In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah Hoshea the son of Elah began to reign in Samaria over Israel, and he reigned nine years.

Royal Officials Taken by Babylon

(2 Kings 24:10-12)

10 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up to Jerusalem, and the city was besieged. 11 And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to the city, while his servants were besieging it; 12 and Jehoiachin the king of Judah gave himself up to the king of Babylon, himself, and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his palace officials.

(Jer. 13:18)

18 Say to the king and the queen mother:
“Take a lowly seat,
for your beautiful crown
has come down from your head.

(Jer. 29:2)

This was after King Jeconiah, and the queen mother, the eunuchs, the princes of Judah and Jerusalem, the craftsmen, and the smiths had departed from Jerusalem.

BATHSHEBA AS KING DAVID’S SPOUSE, AND AS QUEEN MOTHER INTERCEDING WITH KING SOLOMON

(1 Kings 1:15-16, 31)

15 So Bathsheba went to the king into his chamber (now the king was very old, and Abishag the Shunammite was ministering to the king). 16 Bathsheba bowed and did obeisance to the king, and the king said, “What do you desire?”…

31 Then Bathsheba bowed with her face to the ground, and did obeisance to the king, and said, “May my lord King David live forever!”

(1 Kings 2:13-25)

13 Then Adonijah the son of Haggith came to Bathsheba the mother of Solomon. And she said, “Do you come peaceably?” He said, “Peaceably.” 14 Then he said, “I have something to say to you.” She said, “Say on.” 15 He said, “You know that the kingdom was mine, and that all Israel fully expected me to reign; however the kingdom has turned about and become my brother’s, for it was his from the Lord. 16 And now I have one request to make of you; do not refuse me.” She said to him, “Say on.” 17 And he said, “Pray ask King Solomon—he will not refuse you—to give me Abishag the Shunammite as my wife.” 18 Bathsheba said, “Very well; I will speak for you to the king.”

19 So Bathsheba went to King Solomon, to speak to him on behalf of Adonijah. And the king rose to meet her, and bowed down to her; then he sat on his throne, and had a seat brought for the king’s mother; and she sat on his right. 20 Then she said, “I have one small request to make of you; do not refuse me.” And the king said to her, “Make your request, my mother; for I will not refuse you.” 21 She said, “Let Abishag the Shunammite be given to Adonijah your brother as his wife.” 22 King Solomon answered his mother, “And why do you ask Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah? Ask for him the kingdom also; for he is my elder brother, and on his side are Abiathar the priest and Joab the son of Zeruiah.” 23 Then King Solomon swore by the Lord, saying, “God do so to me and more also if this word does not cost Adonijah his life! 24 Now therefore as the Lord lives, who has established me, and placed me on the throne of David my father, and who has made me a house, as he promised, Adonijah shall be put to death this day.” 25 So King Solomon sent Benaiah the son of Jehoiada; and he struck him down, and he died.

Share the Post:

Related Posts

Stay Informed

Sign up to receive important updates on Eternal Christendom. If you are inspired to contribute to this great cause, please Become a Patron.