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Study Bank: The Ancient Lists and Testimonies of Popes Succeeding from Peter

The “Becoming Catholic” series presents the biblical, philosophical, and historical evidence for why Eternal Christendom Founder, Joshua Charles, became and remains Catholic. The series table of contents is here.

This Study Bank on the Ancient Lists and Testimonies of Popes Succeeding from Peter is part of the Becoming Catholic series. When preparing articles, I typically engage in a substantial amount of research, and often organize it in separate documents I then use as a reference when writing the article. Sometimes these are Scripture word studies, other times they are compilations of verses or patristic and other quotes on particular subjects, etc. I have found that organizing the data often leads to a better understanding of the topic at hand.

A Study Bank, therefore, is in no way an article, or presenting an argument. It is simply a compilation of data on a particular topic.

In this Study Bank, I list every citation I have found where ancient authors testify to the presence of both St. Peter, and the first few centuries of his papal successors, in Rome. Not a single ancient author denies that Peter was in Rome. In fact, they roundly testify that Peter was in Rome; he established his episcopal throne there; he was martyred there; and his episcopal throne was filled by individual men who succeeded him.

In the Overview section, I list each Pope and the ancient authors that reference them in order to provide a quick, broad overview. In the Sources section, I list all sources that are not online. In the List of Popes section, I provide all the citations from each author.

This Study Bank will be constantly updated.

SOURCES

  • St. Optatus, Mark Edwards, trans., Against the Donatists (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1997).
  • Paulus Orosius, Roy J. Deferrari, trans., The Fathers of the Church, Vol. 50: Paulus Orosius: The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1964).

OVERVIEW

  • #1: St. Peter—St. Peter; St. Ignatius of Antioch; St. Dionysius of Corinth; St. Irenaeus of Lyon; St. Clement of Alexandria; Tertullian; St. Peter of Alexandria; Lactantius; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus; St. Jerome; Paulus Orosius
  • #2: St. Pope Linus—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #3: St. Pope Anacletus—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus (reversed #3 and #4)
  • #4: St. Pope Clement—St. Dionysius of Corinth; St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Tertullian; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus; St. Jerome; Rufinus
  • #5: St. Pope Evaristus—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #6: St. Pope Alexander—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #7: St. Pope Sixtus—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #8: St. Pope Telesphorus—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #9: St. Pope Hyginus—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #10: St. Pope Pius—St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus (reversed #10 and #11)
  • #11: St. Pope Anicetus—Hegesippus; St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #12: St. Pope Soter—Hegesippus; St. Dionysius of Corinth; St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #13: St. Pope Eleutherius—Hegesippus; Martyrs of Lyon; St. Irenaeus of Lyon; Tertullian; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #14: St. Pope Victor— Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus; St. Jerome
  • #15: St. Pope Zephyrinus—Gaius/Caius; Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #16: St. Pope Callistus—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #17: St. Pope Urban—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #18: St. Pope Pontian—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #19: St. Pope Anterus—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #20: St. Pope Fabian—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #21: St. Pope Cornelius—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus; St. Jerome
  • #22: St. Pope Lucius—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #23: St. Pope Stephen—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #24: St. Pope Sixtus II—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #25: St. Pope Dionysius—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #26: St. Pope Felix—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #27: St. Pope Eutychian—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #28: St. Pope Caius—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #29: St. Pope Marcellinus—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #30: St. Pope Marcellus—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #31: St. Pope Eusebius—Eusebius of Caesarea; St. Optatus
  • #32: St. Pope Miltiades—Eusebius of Caesarea (Pope when written); St. Optatus
  • #33: St. Pope Sylvester—St. Optatus
  • #34: St. Pope Mark—St. Optatus
  • #35: St. Pope Julius—St. Optatus
  • #36: Pope Liberius—St. Optatus
  • #37: St. Pope Damasus—St. Optatus; St. Jerome
  • #38: St. Pope Siricius—St. Optatus (Pope when written)

LIST OF POPES

Pope #1: St. Peter

St. Peter, First Letter

5:13

St. Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Romans (c. 107)

§4

St. Dionysius of Corinth, Letter to the Romans (c. 171)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 2, Ch. 25, §§5, 8)

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §§2-3

St. Clement of Alexandria, Sketches/Outlines (c. 200)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 6, Ch. 14, §6)

Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics (200)

Ch. 32, 36

St. Peter of Alexandria, Canonical Epistle (c. 300)

Can. 9

Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died (c. 318)

Ch. 2

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 2, Ch. 1415; Ch. 17, §1; Ch. 25
Book 3, Ch. 2; Ch. 31
Book 6, Ch. 14; Ch. 25, §5

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §§2-3 (pg. 32)

St. Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men (c. 392-93)

Ch. 1

Paulus Orosius, The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans (418)

Book 7, §6 (pgs. 294-95)

Pope #2: St. Pope Linus

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 3, Ch. 2Ch. 4, §9; Ch. 13; Ch. 21, §3
Book 5, Ch. 6, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 32)

Pope #3: St. Pope Anacletus

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 3, Ch. 13; Ch. 15; Ch. 21, §3
Book 5, Ch. 6, §2

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 32)

Pope #4: St. Pope Clement

St. Dionysius of Corinth, Letter to St. Pope Soter (c. 171)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 4, Ch. 23, §11)

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics (200)

Ch. 32

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 3, Ch. 4, §10; Ch. 1516; Ch. 21, §2

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 32)

St. Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men (c. 392-93)

Ch. 15

Rufinus

Conclusion to His Translation of Origen’s Commentary on Romans (c. 407)   

Pope #5: St. Pope Evaristus

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 3, Ch. 34
Book 4, Ch. 1, §2
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 32-33)

Pope #6: St. Pope Alexander

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. Ch. 4
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 32-33)

Pope #7: St. Pope Xystus/Sixtus

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 4; Ch. 5, §5
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 24, §14
Book 7, Ch. 9, §§1, 6; Ch. 14; Ch. 27, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #8: St. Pope Telesphorus

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 5, §5; Ch. 10
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 24, §14

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #9: St. Pope Hyginus

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 1, Ch. 27, §1
Book 3, Ch. 3, §3; Ch. 4, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 10; Ch. 11, §§1-2, 6
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 24, §14

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #10: St. Pope Pius

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3; Ch. 4, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 11, §§1, 6-7
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 24, §14

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #11: St. Pope Anicetus

Hegesippus, Memoirs (c. 170)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 4, Ch. 22, §3)

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180)

Book 1, Ch. 25, §6
Book 3, Ch. 3, §§3-4; Ch. 4, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 11, §§1, 7; Ch. 14, §§1, 5; Ch. 19; Ch. 22, §3
Book 5, Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 24, §§14, 16-17

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #12: St. Pope Soter

Hegesippus, Memoirs (c. 170)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 4, Ch. 22, §3)

St. Dionysius of Corinth, Letter to St. Pope Soter (c. 171)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 4, Ch. 23, §§9-10)

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 19; Ch. 22, §3; Ch. 23, §§9-10; Ch. 30, §3
Book 5, Intro., §1; Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 24, §14

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #13: St. Pope Eleutherus

Hegesippus, Memoirs (c. 170)

Quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 4, Ch. 22, §3)

Martyrs of Lyon, To St. Pope Eleutherus (177)

Cited/quoted in Eusebius, Church History (Book 5, Ch. 3, §4; Ch. 4, §2)

St. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies (c. 180) (Pope when written)

Book 3, Ch. 3, §3

Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics (200)

Ch. 30

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 4, Ch. 11, §7; Ch. 22, §3
Book 5, Intro., §1; Ch. 3, §4; Ch. 4, §2; Ch. 5, §9; Ch. 6, §4; Ch. 22

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #14: St. Pope Victor

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 3, Ch. 31, §2
Book 5, Ch. 22; Ch. 23, §2; Ch. 24, §§1, 9-11, 18; Ch. 28, §§3-4, 6-7, 9

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

St. Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men (c. 392-93)

Ch. 34

Pope #15: St. Pope Zephyrinus

Gaius/Caius, Dialogue (unknown date)

Cited in Eusebius, Church History (Book 6, Ch. 20, §3)

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 2, Ch. 25, §6
Book 5, Ch. 28, §§3, 7, 12
Book 6, Ch. 14, §10; Ch. 20, §3; Ch. 21, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #16: St. Pope Callistus

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 6, Ch. 21, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #17: St. Pope Urbanus/Urban

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 6, Ch. 21, §2; Ch. 23, §3

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #18: St. Pope Pontianus/Pontian

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 6, Ch. 23, §3; Ch. 29, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #19: St. Pope Anteros/Anterus

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 6, Ch. 29, §§1-2

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #20: St. Pope Fabianus/Fabian

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 6, Ch. 29, §§1-3; Ch. 36, §4; Ch. 39, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #21: St. Pope Cornelius

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 6, Ch. 39, §1; Ch. 43, §§3-5, 18-19, 22; Ch. 46, §3
Book 7, Ch. 2

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

St. Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men (c. 392-93)

Ch. 66

Pope #22: St. Pope Lucius

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 2

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #23: St. Pope Stephen

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 2; Ch. 3; Ch. 4; Ch. 5, §§3, 6

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #24: St. Pope Xystus/Sixtus II

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 5, §3; Ch. 9, §§1, 6; Ch. 14; Ch. 27, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #25: St. Pope Dionysius

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 26, §1; Ch. 27, §1; Ch. 30, §§1-2, 23

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #26: St. Pope Felix

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 30, §23; Ch. 32, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #27: St. Pope Eutychianus/Eutychian

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 32, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #28: St. Pope Caius

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 32, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #29: St. Pope Marcellinus

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Book 7, Ch. 32, §1

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #30: St. Pope Marcellus

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Missing from Eusebius’s Church History.

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #31: St. Pope Eusebius

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323)

Missing from Eusebius’s Church History.

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #32: St. Pope Miltiades

Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History (c. 323) (Pope when written)

Book 10, Ch. 5, §18

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #33: St. Pope Sylvester

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #34: St. Pope Mark

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #35: St. Pope Julius

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #36: Pope Liberius

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

Pope #37: St. Pope Damasus

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

St. Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men (c. 392-93)

Ch. 103

Pope #38: St. Pope Siricius

St. Optatus, Against the Donatists (c. 365) (Pope when written)

Book 2, §3 (pg. 33)

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